This paper is mainly concerned with measuring the size and development of the shadow economy, black activities and undeclared work. Knowledge about the shadow economy and the shadow labour force is necessary to fighting tax evasion, an important policy goal in OECD countries, but this subject is not considered in this paper because too many additional aspects would be involved. Tax morale or experimental studies on tax compliance are also beyond the scope of this paper which is organized as follows: Section 2 presents theoretical considerations about the definition and measurement of the shadow economy and discusses also the main factors determining its size. In Section 3 the empirical results of the size and development of the shadow economy are discussed. In section 4 a detailed discussion of the size and development of the shadow economy labour force and its various aspects are presented. In section 5 the interaction between the shadow economy and unemployment is analyzed. In section 6 the adjustments of shadow economy measures in national accounts are presented. Finally section 7 concludes.
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The Sales Managers' Indexescovering all major Asian, African and Latin American emerging markets, plus North America.
World Price IndexPPP exchange rates for the worlds top 10 economies.
Regular Key Papers on Economic Data
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