Graham Bird is visiting professor at Claremont McKenna College and clinical professor at Claremont Graduate University. He is also a research professor at the University of Surrey. For 20 years he was director of the Surrey Centre for International Economic Studies as well as being a visiting scholar in the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Research Department, and an expert adviser to the Independent Evaluation Office of the IMF. He has been a consultant to the European Central Bank, the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the UNICEF and the Commonwealth Secretariat. Graham is the author, co-author or editor of more than 20 books and monographs and has written approaching 200 papers in academic journals including being a frequent contributor to World Economics.