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Policy Area Papers on Exchange rate policy



To Establish a Balanced Multi-currency International Reserve System To Establish a Balanced Multi-currency International Reserve System
Xinli Zheng, World Economics, December 2015
The dollar’s important role in the global economy is inevitably contradictory with its role as a sovereign currency. How to solve this contradiction? The combination of a multi-currency international monetary system, mainly made up of dollar, euro and Renminbi (RMB), as ... More


The Greek Economic Crisis - is the Euro to Blame? The Greek Economic Crisis - is the Euro to Blame?
Andreas Hatzigeorgiou, World Economics, September 2014
The euro has been at the centre of reporting and discussion on Greece’s economic crisis. This article analyses the build-up, outbreak and development of the crisis in Greece, with the aim to answer whether the crisis can be traced to the country’s entrance into the Euro ... More


How Safe is SAFE’s Management of China’s Official Foreign Exchange Reserves? How Safe is SAFE’s Management of China’s Official Foreign Exchange Reserves?
Friedrich Wu, Robbert-Jan Korthals & Ng Kuan Khai, World Economics, June 2013
This paper examines whether the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) and its subsidiary SAFE Investment Company (SIC), the sole managers of China’s gargantuan official foreign exchange reserves (OFER) until 2007, have shifted their investment behaviour since ... More


Poor Economic Statistics Fuel China’s Low Consumption Myth Poor Economic Statistics Fuel China’s Low Consumption Myth
Jun Zhang & Tian Zhu, World Economics, June 2013
The generally held belief that China’s consumption is too low is a myth based on inadequate theory, a misreading of official statistics and the use of market exchange rates for making international comparisons. Chinese official statistics underestimate consumption expen ... More


The Eurozone: What Now? The Eurozone: What Now?
Graham Bird, World Economics, September 2010
The financial and economic crisis in Greece in 2009/2010 has reawakened interest in the future of the euro and the eurozone. After briefly explaining its sources, this article focuses on the longer-term issues to which the crisis gives rise. It explores the underlying w ... More


Dollarisation in Theory and Practice Dollarisation in Theory and Practice
John C. B. Cooper, World Economics, December 2004
Dollarisation involves the replacement of a soft domestic currency with a hard foreign alternative. This paper explains the different forms that dollarisation can take, its consequences for an economy, and concludes by exploring the experience of Panama, a country do ... More


Beyond the Ivory Tower Beyond the Ivory Tower: Stanley Fischer on the economics of contemporary global issues
An interview with introduction by Brian Snowdon
World Economics, March 2004
Stanley Fischer had a long and distinguished career as an academic economist at MIT, and was Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist at the World Bank, before becoming First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund in 1994. He is ... More


Exchange Rate Regimes Exchange Rate Regimes: Is there a third way?
Vijay Joshi, World Economics, December 2003
This paper argues that (a) for many developing countries, the optimal external payments regime would be a combination of an intermediate exchange rate with capital controls and (b) the policy stance and advice of the IMF should reflect this judgement. The paper uses ... More


The UK’s Achievement of Economic Stability The UK’s Achievement of Economic Stability: How and why did it happen?
Tim Congdon, World Economics, December 2002
The UK achieved a remarkable degree of macro-economic stability in the 1990s. Contrary to expectations when the pound was expelled from the European exchange rate mechanism in September 1992, over the next ten years inflation was kept almost exactly on target and its ... More


Japan’s Monetary and Economic Policy Japan’s Monetary and Economic Policy
Allan Meltzer, World Economics, September 2002
Japan has gone from very successful policies that promoted growth without inflation to a long period of slow growth, recessions and deflation. The Bank of Japan’s policies are a major reason for deflation. Although the Bank has purchased foreign exchange, it counterac ... More


Where Do We Stand On Choosing Exchange Rate Regimes in Developing and Emerging Economies? Where Do We Stand On Choosing Exchange Rate Regimes in Developing and Emerging Economies?
Graham Bird, World Economics, March 2002
In the midst of a lively debate about international monetary reform at the beginning of the twenty-first century, there seemed to be a broad consensus about exchange rate policy in developing and emerging economies; that they should opt for one of the extremes in the ... More


Is Dollarisation a Viable Option for Latin America? Is Dollarisation a Viable Option for Latin America?
Graham Bird, World Economics, March 2001
In the aftermath of the East Asian financial crisis there has been much discussion of exchange rate policy in developing countries. Some observers have suggested that they should opt either for flexible exchange rates or for firmly fixed rates. Adopting the US dollar as ... More