Browse by Subject

Policy Area Papers on Social security



Human Resource Development (HRD) and Foreign Remittances Human Resource Development (HRD) and Foreign Remittances: The case of South Asia
Muhammad Abdul Wahab, Vaqar Ahmed & Hamid Mahmood, World Economics, December 2013
This study tries to document linkages between HRD, migration and remittances in South Asia. We have explained in detail the various channels through which HRD promotes migration and remittances, and a case has been made not to consider this process as brain drain – rath ... More


Demystifying Youth Unemployment Demystifying Youth Unemployment
Terence Tse, Mark Esposito & Jorgo Chatzimarkakis, World Economics, September 2013
Youth unemployment has become an ever increasing serious socio-economic problem, which deserves far more attention that it has so far received. In this article, we examine the causes of this issue. They include 1) countries losing the ability to compete effectively and ... More


It’s Time to Retire the US Military’s Retirement System It’s Time to Retire the US Military’s Retirement System
Chris Springer, World Economics, December 2010
The author outlines a retirement system for the most expensive government organisation in the world – the US military. The plan incorporates positive aspects of both defined benefit and defined contribution plans that cost less and are more valuable to service members t ... More


Are Governments Overextended? Are Governments Overextended?: Assessing the spectrum of a government’s debts and its exposure to risk
Peter S. Heller , World Economics, December 2004
Have government debt levels reached dangerous levels? Certainly, for some countries, the data would suggest so. However, this paper will argue that for many governments, the amount of explicit debt on their balance sheets seriously understates the magnitude of their ... More


Demographics and Pension Reforms in the Major Central and Eastern European Countries Demographics and Pension Reforms in the Major Central and Eastern European Countries
Dieter Bräuninger, World Economics, March 2003
Today in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries there are barely 30 pensioners for every 100 persons of working age. By 2050, the number could rise to almost 80 pensioners. So far Poland has responded the most rigorously to the challenge, establishing a mod ... More


The Growing US Fiscal Gap The Growing US Fiscal Gap
Daniel Shaviro, World Economics, December 2002
The United States has a huge long-term fiscal gap, perhaps with a present value as great as $74 trillion. The US may thus be unable to continue meeting its current spending commitments without eventually enacting huge tax increases. The tax cut enacted in 2001 may ha ... More


What Do We Know About the Shadow Economy? What Do We Know About the Shadow Economy?: Evidence from 21 OECD countries
Friedrich Schneider, World Economics, December 2001
Estimates of the size of the shadow economy in 21 OECD countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (as a percentage of ‘official’ GDP) over 1999/2000 in these countries is 16.7%. The author concludes that it is the increasing burden of taxation an ... More


Is Public Spending Good for You? Is Public Spending Good for You?
Yew-Kwang Ng, World Economics, June 2001
Studies by psychologists, sociologists and economists indicate that increases in incomes beyond about US$4,000 are not related to happiness nor significantly with the objective quality-of-life indicators (which increase with scientific and technological breakthroughs at ... More


Understanding Labour Market Institutions Understanding Labour Market Institutions
Gilles Saint-Paul, World Economics, June 2000
Labour market rigidities are often considered to be responsible for high unemployment in Europe. This paper outlines a theory explaining why they may be supported by the political system, and where their support comes from. Labour market rigidities are likely to arise ... More


Poles Apart Poles Apart: Labour market performance and the distribution of work across households
Paul Gregg, Kirstine Hansen & Jonathan Wadsworth, World Economics, June 2000
Analysis of labour market performance using individual level data can reach radically different conclusions to those provided by a household-based analysis, using the same source of information. In Britain and other OECD countries the number of households without access ... More


The Thirty-five Hour Working Week The Thirty-five Hour Working Week: Flexibilité, compétitivité, productivité-a French Revolution
Alan Kirman, World Economics, June 2000
The introduction of a reduced working week (RWW) in France has been widely condemned as an arbitrary additional constraint in an already rigid labour market. This article explores the origins of the law, and the reasons for the negative appreciation by economists of thi ... More


Welfare-to-work and the New Deal Welfare-to-work and the New Deal
Richard Layard, World Economics, June 2000
Welfare-to-work is on trial in many countries. In Britain it has become the
government’s most important policy for lowering unemployment and expanding
labour supply. But can it work? And what lessons does Britain’s experience
provide for other countries? ... More


European Pension Reforms European Pension Reforms: A study by Merrill Lynch
Jan Mantel & David Bowers, World Economics, March 2000
Are the present pension systems in Europe substainable? Can the pensions time bomb caused by demographic changes be defused? This study describes developments in Europe, but the theory, the problems and the solutions are similar for most developed nations in the rest of ... More


Pension Reform in Germany Pension Reform in Germany: To fund or not to fund
Axel Börsch-Supan, World Economics, March 2000
German public retirement insurance is in many respects an extreme example of the typical European pay-as-you-go pension system because almost 85% of retirement income stems from this system and only 15% comes from private sources such as funded pensions, labour income, ... More


The Public/Private Mix in UK Pension Policy The Public/Private Mix in UK Pension Policy
Phil Agulnik & Nicholas Barr, World Economics, March 2000
The UK government aims to shift the balance between public (Pay-As-You-Go) and private (funded) pensions from 60:40 today to 40:60 by 2050 (UK DSS 1998). What is the economic rationale for this shift? Funding pensions may have a positive effect on economic growth and th ... More


Achieving the goals of UK Pension Reform Achieving the goals of UK Pension Reform
Frank Field, World Economics, March 2000
There is an inevitable tension between the aim of providing enough income in retirement for those genuinely unable to build up a sufficiently large fund of their own and the aim of preserving people’s incentives to save for their own retirement. The author argues that ... More


Values Matter Values Matter
Avner Ben-Ner & Louis Putterman, World Economics, March 2000
Human beings display a complex set of behavioural predispositions, including a strong inclination to pursue self-interest but also empathy, receptivity to norms of reciprocity, and an inclination to punish violators of such norms. Not only are workable economic arrange ... More