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Andrew G Haldane
Andrew G. Haldane is Head of Market Infrastructure at the Bank of England. Previous to that he was Head of International Finance at the Bank. He is the author of over 60 articles on monetary policy, international finance and financial stability and the editor of two books—on Targeting Inflation and on Fixing Financial Crises in the 21st Century. He has served as a consultant for a number of international organisations, most recently the International Monetary Fund.

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Andrew G. Haldane
Andrew Haldane is Head of Systemic Risk Assessment at the Bank of England where he is responsible for conducting policy and research on risks to the UK financial system and the Bank’s Financial Stability Report. Prior to that he was Head of International Finance and Head of Market Infrastructure at the Bank. He has written extensively on monetary policy and financial stability issues, including books on inflationtargeting, international financial crises and, most recently, payment systems.

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Günther G. Schulze
Günther G. Schulze is Professor of Economics at the University of Freiburg, Germany. His main research areas are international economics, international environmental economics, and interjurisdictional competition. He is author of The Political Economy of Capital Controls (2000, Cambridge University Press) and editor of International Environmental Economics (2001, Oxford University Press, jointly with Heinrich Ursprung).

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Jeffrey G. Williamson
Jeffrey G. Williamson is the Laird Bell Professor of Economics, Faculty Associate at the Center for International Development, Harvard University and Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He has twice received the Galbraith Prize for the best teacher in Harvard’s graduate economics program. During 1994–1995 he was President of the Economic History Association. Professor Williamson teaches and does research on economic history and the contemporary Third World. Some topics he has explored recently include: the growth and distributional implications of the demographic transition in Asia 1950–2025 and the Atlantic economy 1820–1940; the impact of international migration, capital flows and trade on factor price convergence in the greater Atlantic economy since 1830; the sources of globalization backlash before World War I; the causes of the cessation of convergence during the de-globalization years between 1914 and 1950; a detailed analysis of both the sources and consequences of the mass migrations prior to the 1920s and after the 1950s; the economic implications of 1492. New research topics include a project establishing a data base and then the exploration of the evolution of world factor prices and living standards since 1820.

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Leslie G. Manison
Leslie G. Manison
Leslie G. Manison is an economist, specialising in macroeconomic policy analysis and international financial relations. He is a former senior economist at the International Monetary Fund, an ex-advisor in the Cyprus Ministry of Finance, and a former senior advisor in the Central Bank of Cyprus.

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M. G. Quibria
M. G. Quibria is currently Advisor, Operations Evaluation Department, Asian Development Bank and was previously Assistant Chief Economist in the research department. He also held teaching and research appointments at Nuffield College, Oxford; Boston University; and ADB Institute. Dr Quibria is the author of many scholarly articles and books. He obtained his MA and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Princeton University.

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M.G. Quibria
M.G. Quibria
M.G. Quibria is currently Professor of International Development at Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD. Previously, he was Assistant Chief Economist and Senior Advisor at the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank Institute, respectively. He also held teaching and research appointments at Nuffield College, Oxford, Boston University and Singapore Management University. Dr Quibria is the author of many scholarly articles and books. He obtained his MA and PhD degrees in economics from Princeton University.

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M.G.Quibria
M.G.Quibria
Muhammad Quibria is currently Professor of International Development at Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD. Previously, he was Assistant Chief Economist and Senior Advisor at the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank Institute, respectively. He also held teaching and research appointments at Nuffield College, Oxford, Boston University and Singapore Management University. Dr Quibria is the author of many scholarly articles and books. He obtained his MA and PhD degrees in economics from Princeton University.

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Richard G. Richels
Richard G. Richels is Director of Global Climate Change Research at the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, USA, where he studies the economic implications of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies. He is active in the Energy Modeling Forum and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

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Roger G. Noll
Roger G. Noll
Roger G. Noll is Professor of Economics (emeritus) at Stanford University.

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Peter A.G. van Bergeijk
Peter A.G. van Bergeijk
Peter A.G. van Bergeijk is Professor of International Economics and Macroeconomics at the Institute of Social Studies (Erasmus University) . His research interests in the field of international economics include economic sanctions, diplomacy, development, competition policy regimes and trade uncertainty. His most recent books include Sustainable Development Goals and Income in Equality (co-edited with Rolph van der Hoeven, Edward Elgar 2017) and Research Handbook of Economic Diplomacy (co-edited with Selwyn Moons, Edward Elgar 2017) Articles have appeared amongst others in Ecological Economics, Journal of Peace Research, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, and World Development. Bergeijk has a Ph.D. in International Economics from Groningen University and a MA in theoretical economics from Erasmus University, where he was a Professor of Economic Policy in the Research Centre for Economic Policy (1998–2004). He was a Visiting Professor in Monetary Policy at the University of Zurich, Switzerland (1999-2001). Bergeijk has been strongly involved in policy making and banking. He served several high ranking functions in economic diplomacy including the Bureau of the OECD’s EPC Working Party 1 (2007-2009), the steering committee of the EU’s ECN chief competition economist network (2004-2006) and the EU’s Monetary Committee (1997-1999). He was a Chief Economist at the Dutch competition authority NMa (2001-2006) and the Directorate General for International Economic relations (2006-2009). Previous positions include Director of the Monetary and Economic Policy department of De Nederlandsche Bank NV (Central Bank) (1997-1999) and Director of UBS Group Economic Research, Zurich, Switzerland (1999-2001).

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Making Data Measurement Errors Transparent: The Case of the IMF
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Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, World Economics, September 2017
In 1950 Morgenstern pointed out that absolute precision and certainty are impossible in economic observations, but estimates are often hampered by a substantial degree of measurement error. Unlike the natural sciences, economists in general do not report measurement errors for the key concepts such as prices, value or production that it seeks to define, measure and explain. For most macroeconomic concepts two approaches are available: the Implicit Minimal Measurement Error and the Maximum Ratio. Studying different vintages of the IMF World Economic Outlook data base it was found that the estimates on average have an implicit minimal measurement error of 4.3% and maximum ratio of 17.9%. An agenda is proposed for removing disincentives (creating incentives) for stakeholders (academics, data collectors and producers) since reporting measurement error will result in better research, better policy and ultimately better data.
Data on Indicators of Governance: Handle with Care
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M.G.Quibria, World Economics, June 2016
This article provides a select review of data used as indicators of governance. Despite the popularity and considerable success of the existing body of governance indicators in putting the spotlight on governance inadequacies in developing countries, they are fraught with a whole host of statistical and measurement issues. It argues that these indicators should be applied with caution, keeping their shortcomings in mind.
Going Beyond Averages
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M.G. Quibria, World Economics, March 2013
One of the persistent, unresolved controversies of economic development is the effectiveness of development assistance – whether foreign aid contributes to economic development. This article argues that this controversy is largely an artefact of a methodology that focuses on the ‘averages’ and pays inadequate attention to the specific characteristics of individual societies. For enhancing aid effectiveness, one needs to discard the one-size-fits-all approach, and adopt a more nuanced, tailor-made strategy based on a comprehensive understanding of specific countries.
Measuring Global Poverty Right
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M. G. Quibria, World Economics, December 2005
The international community is committed to millennium development goals which postulate a vision of global development that makes eliminating poverty and sustaining development the overriding objective of global development efforts. In the hierarchy of the MDGs, the first and foremost goal is to reduce by half, between 1990–2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than a dollar a day (a widely used yardstick to measure extreme poverty). However, estimating such poverty across developing countries and globally is by no means a simple exercise nor has it yielded unambiguous results. This article provides a brief summary of the state of the art in global poverty estimates, including the problems as well as the possible solutions.

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