Transport and gross domestic product have grown at roughly a one-to-one
relationship in the past. Many decision-makers consider the supply of transport
infrastructure an important ingredient in fostering productivity and economic
growth; some even consider it a prerequisite. This article analyses the various
causal links from transport to economic growth and puts their empirical
significance in perspective. The more important challenge for current transport
policy, however, is found to be that concerning the reverse linkage, i.e.—given a growing economy—how can we develop a transport system that does not then
erode the benefits it created in the first place? Finally, and to that end, a possible future system of sustainable access and mobility service is characterized and policy conclusions are drawn.