Egypt: Worst Governance in the Emerging Markets

Updated: February 2023


Key Insights
  • Egypts’s economic and demographic data are unreliable, graded D on the World Economics classification scale. The data presented here have been re-estimated and improved where possible, using Purchasing Power Parity data to make international comparisons, by the addition of best estimates for the large Informal economy in Egypts, and by estimates to correct for the use by Egypts’s outdated System of National Accounts framework (SNA). We believe they represent a more realistic view of the Egyption economy, but counsel users that this cannot be guaranteed in a country with significant Governance and corruption problems.
  • The Egyptian economy is estimated by World Economics to be 49% larger than official data suggests, and the second biggest economy in Africa.
  • Egypts large population benefits from high levels of GDP pe Capita in relation to the rest of Africa but only around half those of other Emerging Market countries.
  • Egypt suffers from poor levels of governance, the lowest ranking country in the Emerging Markets
  • Climate change is affecting Egypt more than most countries with temperatures increasing faster than the global average.
 
ECONOMY SIZE

  • When measured in Purchasing Power Parity terms, including estimates for its large informal economy, and adjustments for outdated base year measures, Egypt's GDP is currently the nineteenth largest in the world, second largest in Africa and ninth largest in the Emerging Markets
Gross Domestic Product: 2022
Ranked by GDP
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GDP PPP
(Billions)
GDP Data Quality
Grade
Share of
Global GDP
%





Mexico $3,370 C 2.0%
Italy $3,184 A 1.9%
Korea, Rep. $2,874 A 1.7%
Saudi Arabia $2,439 B 1.4%
Spain $2,302 A 1.3%
Canada $2,108 A 1.2%
Nigeria $2,018 D 1.2%
Egypt $2,010 D 1.2%
Pakistan $1,856 C 1.1%
Thailand $1,849 C 1.1%
Poland $1,674 A 1.0%
Taiwan $1,564 B 0.9%
Vietnam $1,535 D 0.9%
Bangladesh $1,495 D 0.9%
Australia $1,491 A 0.9%

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GDP Data Quality

Data Quality Ratings: Africa
Index: 0 = Extremely poor quality, 100 = Good as it gets
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Data
Quality
Index
Data
Quality
Grade
Base
Year
SNA
Version
Informal
Economy %
Resoucres
Index
0-100
Corruption
Index
0-100





Tunisia 67.2 C Chained 1993 30.4 58.9 40
Tanzania 66.7 C 2017 2008 46.7 63.3 38
Mauritania 66.6 C 2014 2008 31.3 61.1 30
Cameroon 65.6 C 2016 2008 29.9 46.7 26
Mozambique 65.1 C 2014 2008 34.3 62.2 26
Gambia 64.0 C 2013 2008 44.3 70.0 34
Eswatini 62.6 C 2011 2008 40.9 71.1 30
Egypt 62.4 D 2016 1993 34.8 82.2 30
Zambia 59.8 D 2010 2008 38.7 53.3 33
Sierra Leone 57.9 D 2006 2008 37.3 60.0 34
Ethiopia 57.4 D 2015 1993 33.5 47.8 38
Liberia 54.9 D 2016 1993 42.6 57.8 26
Guinea-Bissau 53.7 D 2015 1993 35.5 48.9 21
Zimbabwe 52.9 D 2012 2008 64.1 58.9 23
Nigeria 52.2 D 2010 2008 57.7 53.3 24

Access the interactive all country Data Quality Ratings table

Key:
Data Quality Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Poor, 100 = Excellent.

Resources Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Low level of resources, 100 = High level of resources.

Corruption Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = High corruption, 100 = Low corruption.

Grade definitions:
         A: As good as it gets;
         B: Use with caution;
         C: Unreliable for many purposes
         D: Extremely poor quality.


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ECONOMIC GROWTH

  • Egypt's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10, 5 and 3 years was 4.2%, 4.9% and 4.5% respectively.
  • On a 10-year CAGR basis Egypt ranks as the 18th fastest growing economy in the Africa region and 6th of 24 countries in the Emerging Markets over the past decade.
Egypt's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10-years
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Global
Rank:
GDP Data
Quality:
Grade
CAGR
10 Year:
2012-2022
CAGR
5 Year:
2017-2022
CAGR
3 Year:
2019-2022
Global Growth
Share:
Percentage




Togo 27 C 5.0% 4.5% 4.1% 0.0%
Burkina Faso 28 C 5.0% 4.8% 4.1% 0.1%
Philippines 29 B 4.8% 2.9% 0.7% 1.1%
Uganda 30 C 4.8% 5.0% 4.1% 0.1%
Ghana 31 C 4.7% 4.7% 2.7% 0.2%
Cameroon 32 C 4.4% 3.7% 2.6% 0.1%
Morocco 33 B 4.4% 3.8% 2.7% 0.3%
Egypt 34 D 4.2% 4.9% 4.5% 1.5%
Nepal 35 D 4.2% 3.8% 1.6% 0.1%
Indonesia 36 C 4.2% 3.4% 2.3% 3.6%
Mongolia 37 B 4.1% 2.6% -0.3% 0.0%
Georgia 38 B 4.0% 4.3% 3.9% 0.1%
Mali 39 D 4.0% 2.7% 1.4% 0.1%
Malaysia 40 B 3.9% 2.6% 1.3% 0.9%
Mozambique 41 C 3.9% 2.1% 1.5% 0.0%

Access the interactive all country CAGR table

  • Over the past 10 years the global economy has grown by 35%. Egypt's contribution to this growth was 1.5% once any allowances are made for base year and informal economy size.

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WEALTH

  • GDP per Capita has grown at a slower rate than comparable countries in the North African region but faster than countries in the Emerging Markets generally.
  • In GDP per Capita terms, Egypt ranks 6th for Africa and 21st for the Emerging Markets.
Egypt's GDP Per Capita Growth
Index: 1996 = 100

GDP Per Capita: Africa
Ranked by GDP per Capita
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GDP Per Capita
PPP
(Int$)
GDP per Capita
Data Quality
Grade





Gabon $28,630 D
Libya $26,862 D
Mauritius $25,655 A
Botswana $23,335 D
South Africa $19,375 C
Egypt $18,935 D
Eswatini $14,544 C
Tunisia $13,834 C
Algeria $13,266 C
Namibia $12,505 D
Angola $11,138 D
Morocco $11,054 C
Nigeria $9,310 D
Africa Average $7,957 -
Emerging Markets Average $39,337 -

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INEQUALITY

  • The distribution of income in an economy and can be measured on a country by country basis by the Gini Coefficient. Gini values are not all up-to-date but in the case of Egypt the data relates to 2017.
  • World Economics has Indexed the Gini Coefficient in relation to each country for comparison purposes. The Index is on a scale of 0-100. A high value indicates a more egalitarian society - and a low value suggests a lot of the national income is in the hands of a relatively small section of the population.
  • Egypt ranks 32nd globally, 3rd for the Africa region and 6th in the Emerging Markets for Inequality.
Inequality Rankings: Africa
Index: 0-100, 0 = High Inequality; 100 = High Equality
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Regional
Rank
Inequality
Index
Poverty
% of Population




Algeria 1 56.2 0.4%
Libya 2 51.3 0.0%
Egypt 3 50.0 3.8%
Mauritania 4 48.3 6.0%
Tunisia 5 47.9 0.2%
Mali 6 47.6 16.3%
Guinea 7 46.5 23.2%
Sudan 8 45.7 12.2%
Niger 9 45.6 41.4%
Ethiopia 10 44.4 30.8%

Access the interactive all country Inequality table

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DEBT

  • World Economics produces GDP data in Purchasing Power Parity terms with added estimates for the size of the informal economy and adjustments for out-of-date GDP base year data.
  • Egypt's is officially reported as having a debt-to-GDP ratio is calculated to be 89.2% by the IMF.
  • Using the World Economics GDP database, Egypt's GDP is calculated to be 49% larger than official estimates. Its debt ratio is consequently calculated at 59.8%
Debt-to-GDP Ratio for Emerging Market Countries
Ranked by % of GDP
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Global
Rank
Debt-to-GDP
Ratio




Brazil 29 66.2%
Bahamas, The 30 66.1%
Germany 31 63.9%
China 32 62.4%
Hungary 33 60.7%
Jamaica 34 60.1%
Iceland 35 59.9%
Egypt 36 59.8%
Finland 37 58.2%
Ghana 38 57.7%
Slovenia 39 56.2%
Croatia 40 56.1%
El Salvador 41 54.8%
Argentina 42 54.3%
Guinea-Bissau 43 53.9%
Africa Average   43.1%
Emerging Markets Average   43.7%


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POPULATION

  • Egypt is the fourteenth most populous country in the world with approximately 106 million inhabitants.
  • Egypt last conducted a national census in 2017. Read more from the World Economics Population Data Quality Ratings and see how Egypt compares to other countries around the world and in the Africa region.
Egypt's Population Breakdown
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Population
Size
(Millions)
Median
Age
(Years)
Age
Dependency
(Young)
Age
Dependency
(Old)
Age
Dependency
(Total)





Brazil 215.4 32.8 29.4% 13.7% 43.1%
Bangladesh 167.9 26.3 39.1% 8.6% 47.7%
Russia 145.8 38.8 26.6% 23.4% 50.0%
Mexico 131.6 29.0 37.3% 12.2% 49.4%
Japan 125.6 48.4 20.1% 51.0% 71.1%
Ethiopia 120.8 18.5 70.2% 5.5% 75.7%
Philippines 112.5 24.5 47.8% 8.3% 56.2%
Egypt 106.2 23.9 53.2% 7.7% 60.8%
Vietnam 99.0 32.0 32.8% 12.7% 45.6%
Congo, Dem. Rep 95.2 15.6 92.1% 5.9% 98.0%
Turkey 85.6 30.9 34.5% 12.3% 46.8%
Germany 83.9 44.9 21.7% 34.7% 56.4%
Thailand 70.1 39.3 22.7% 20.8% 43.5%
United Kingdom 68.5 39.6 27.8% 29.8% 57.7%
France 65.6 41.6 28.3% 34.8% 63.1%

Access the interactive all country Population table

  • Egypt has a young population profile of 53.2% and an old population profile of 7.7%. The average age is low at 24.6 years old.

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ENVIRONMENT

  • Egypt's total emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane are considerable placing it as the 28th largest of polluters by volume but on per capita level, Egypt moves down the list to below the global median.
  • The World Economics Emissions Index (on a scale of 0-100, 0=bad, 100=good) gauges the relative emissions for a country. The Emissions Index is based on the equal weighting of total Carbon and Methane emissions.
Environmental Factors
Index: 0 = High Emissions, 100 = Low Emissions
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Emissions
Index
0-100
Carbon
Emissions
Total
Carbon
Emissions
Per Capita
Methane
Emissions
Total
Methane
Emissions
Per Capita
Air
Quality
PM2.5
Water
Access
per capita





Argentina 93.8 186.5 4.1 130.9 2.9 12.0 85.3%
Japan 94.2 1,067.4 8.5 27.7 0.2 10.8 100.0%
South Africa 94.7 435.9 7.3 82.3 1.4 19.8 95.1%
Germany 95.0 674.8 8.0 49.5 0.6 10.7 46.9%
Vietnam 95.2 326.0 3.3 82.5 0.8 20.9 91.7%
Algeria 95.3 176.3 4.0 95.9 2.2 22.7 94.4%
Bangladesh 95.7 93.2 0.6 94.8 0.6 46.0 85.2%
Egypt 95.7 249.6 2.4 78.2 0.8 63.2 98.2%
Thailand 95.8 278.5 4.0 71.3 1.0 24.6 98.8%
Turkey 96.0 446.2 5.3 49.3 0.6 26.5 93.9%
Turkmenistan 96.2 83.0 13.6 82.8 13.5 26.4 92.6%
France 96.3 306.0 4.7 58.2 0.9 10.5 77.6%
Ethiopia 96.3 17.8 0.2 88.4 0.8 21.8 57.2%
United Kingdom 96.4 346.8 5.1 51.2 0.8 9.5 97.7%
Korea, Rep. 96.4 616.1 12.0 22.6 0.4 24.0 72.2%

See: Access the interactive all country Environmental data table

Key:
Emissions Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Bad, 100 = Good.

Notes:
Format: Carbon data in Million MtCO2e and Methane data in MtCO2e, Air Quality: PM2.5

Methodology: Total Carbon and Total Methane data for each country has been indexed on a scale of 0-100 by using the standard deviation from the mean for each country. The implied Indexes are averaged to calculate a total Emissions Index which focuses on each countries emissions.

  • Egypt was the 63rd hottest country in the World with an average annual temperature of 23.9 degrees centigrade (75.0 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • Temperatures in Egypt have risen on average by 1.7 degrees centigrade over the last century with the largest rises taking place since 1970.
Averge Annual Temerature by Year: Egypt

Source: CCKP. World Bank Group, Climate Change Knowledge Portal


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SOCIAL

  • The World Economics Social Index averages multiple key social indicators covering Health, Education and Employment.
  • Egypt has an average level rank for its social metrics, 98th out of 155 countries and 6th of 46 in the Africa region.
Social Factors: Africa
Index: 0 = Poor metrics, 100 = Excellent metrics
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Social
Factors
Index
Life
Expectancy
Years
Median
Age
Years
Mean Years
Schooling
Years
Population
in Work
Population %
Population
in Poverty
%





South Africa 83.7 80.7 27.1 12.8 35.1% 0.0%
Senegal 80.4 76.9 17.8 11.3 42.9% 0.0%
Mauritius 77.7 73.6 36.8 10.4 52.4% 0.0%
Sudan 76.6 76.4 18.4 10.8 38.5% 0.0%
Algeria 73.9 76.4 27.8 8.1 35.1% 0.0%
Egypt 70.4 70.2 23.9 9.6 37.4% 0.0%
Tunisia 69.5 73.8 31.7 7.4 38.2% 0.0%
Libya 68.2 71.9 26.3 7.6 38.3% 0.0%
Cabo Verde 66.7 74.1 26.5 6.3 45.9% 0.0%
Gabon 65.7 65.8 21.6 9.4 37.5% 0.0%
Morocco 65.3 74.0 28.7 5.9 38.6% 0.0%
Sierra Leone 62.8 74.2 18.8 11.4 53.0% 0.0%
Botswana 58.8 61.1 23.5 10.3 45.5% 0.0%

Access the interactive all country Social data table

Key:
Social Factors Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100
         0 = Poor social metrics, 100 = Excellent social metrics.

  • Each pupil in education receives 7.4 years of schooling (on average) - approximatly a year less than the global average.

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GOVERNANCE

  • Egypt ranks 131st globally, 38th in the Africa region and last in the Emerging Markets for Governance.
Governance Factors Index: Africa
Index: 0 = Poor, 100 = Good
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Governance
Index
(0-100 Index)
Rule of Law
Index
(0-100 Index)
Press Freedom
(0-100 Index)
Political Rights
(0-100 Index)
Corruption
Perceptions
(0-100 Index)




Guinea Bissau 35.8 11 63.5 45.2 23.3
Mozambique 35.5 21.3 53.8 38.1 28.9
Sudan 35.3 16.8 44.2 55.8 24.4
Algeria 35.3 26.9 49.1 28.6 36.7
Guinea 34.9 18.9 64.6 28.6 27.8
Mali 34.6 24.7 58.8 23.8 31.1
Gabon 33.6 29.9 60.4 11.9 32.2
Egypt 31.6 41.4 32.6 19.0 33.3
Eswatini 31.0 33.3 50.1 7.1 33.3
Cameroon 30.2 19.7 53.0 19.0 28.9
Zimbabwe 30.1 15.5 48.5 31.0 25.6
Congo, Rep. 28.7 18.7 63.3 9.5 23.3
Burundi 27.0 14.7 60.2 14.3 18.9
Central African Republic 26.3 5.2 61.5 11.9 26.7
Chad 25.7 13.9 60.6 7.1 21.1

Access the interactive all country Governance table

Key:
The World Economics Governance Index gives equal weight to all four criteria.

Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.

Governance: 0 = Poor governance, 100 = As good as it gets.
Corruption Perceptions: 0 = Bad, 100 = Good.
Rule of Law: 0 = low rule of law, 100 = High rule of law.
Press Freedom: 0 = Low press freedom, 100 = High press freedom.
Political Rights: 0 = Low political rights, 100 = High political rights.



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