Pakistan

Updated: February 2023


Key Insights
  • Pakistan is classified by World Economics as the second largest economy in the Frontier Market group.
  • The country has a large population of over 230 million, a low average age but 58% of births are not registered making population data potentially unreliable.
  • Pakista's governance, rule of law levels are very poor while corruption remains high.
 
ECONOMY SIZE

  • When measured in Purchasing Power Parity terms, including estimates for its large informal economy, and adjustments for outdated base year measures, Pakistan's GDP is the 20th largest in the world, 6th largest in the Asia-Pacific region and second largest in the Frontier Markets
Gross Domestic Product: 2022
Ranked by GDP
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GDP PPP
(Billions)
GDP Data Quality
Grade
Share of
Global GDP
%





Italy $3,184 A 1.9%
Korea, Rep. $2,874 A 1.7%
Saudi Arabia $2,439 B 1.4%
Spain $2,302 A 1.3%
Canada $2,108 A 1.2%
Nigeria $2,018 D 1.2%
Egypt $2,010 D 1.2%
Pakistan $1,856 C 1.1%
Thailand $1,849 C 1.1%
Poland $1,674 A 1.0%
Taiwan $1,564 B 0.9%
Vietnam $1,535 D 0.9%
Bangladesh $1,495 D 0.9%
Australia $1,491 A 0.9%
Argentina $1,433 C 0.8%

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GDP Data Quality

Data Quality Ratings: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0 = Extremely poor quality, 100 = Good as it gets
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Data
Quality
Index
Data
Quality
Grade
Base
Year
SNA
Version
Informal
Economy %
Resoucres
Index 0-100
Corruption
Index 0-100





Philippines 73.8 B 2018 2008 34.1 82.2 33
Turkmenistan 73.0 B Chained 2008 34.5 72.2 19
Sri Lanka 72.1 B 2015 2008 31.1 80.0 36
Indonesia 70.6 C 2010 2008 22.7 85.6 34
Kyrgyzstan 70.0 C Chained 1993 30.8 90.0 27
Kazakhstan 69.5 C Chained 1993 31.9 78.9 36
Pakistan 68.5 C 2016 2008 35.6 72.2 27
Uzbekistan 68.0 C Chained 1993 27.2 67.8 31
Thailand 65.8 C Chained 1993 46.2 83.3 36
Azerbaijan 65.6 C Chained 1993 36.8 80.0 23
India 64.9 C 2011 2008 43.1 76.7 40
Tajikistan 64.4 C Chained 1993 37.1 72.2 24
Myanmar 64.0 C 2016 2008 49.0 74.4 23
Vietnam 62.1 D 2010 1993 20.5 74.4 42

Access the interactive all country Data Quality Ratings table

Key:
Data Quality Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Poor, 100 = Excellent.

Resources Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Low level of resources, 100 = High level of resources.

Corruption Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = High corruption, 100 = Low corruption.

Grade definitions:
         A: As good as it gets;
         B: Use with caution;
         C: Unreliable for many purposes
         D: Extremely poor quality.


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ECONOMIC GROWTH

  • Pakistan's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10, 5 and 3 years was 5.6%, 6.4% and 6.1% respectively.
  • On a 10-year CAGR basis Pakistan ranks as the 4th fastest growing economy in the Asia-Pacific region and also the 4th of 28 countries in the Frontier Markets over the past decade.
Pakistan's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10-years
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Global
Rank:
GDP Data
Quality:
Grade
CAGR
10 Year:
2012-2022
CAGR
5 Year:
2017-2022
CAGR
3 Year:
2019-2022
Global Growth
Share:
Percentage




Cote d'Ivoire 7 C 6.8% 5.4% 4.6% 0.3%
Tajikistan 8 C 6.8% 6.8% 6.4% 0.1%
China 9 B 6.2% 5.2% 4.4% 31.7%
Guinea 10 D 6.0% 5.5% 5.3% 0.1%
Rwanda 11 B 6.0% 6.1% 4.1% 0.0%
Mauritania 12 C 5.9% 8.1% 10.0% 0.0%
Uzbekistan 13 C 5.7% 5.1% 4.8% 0.3%
Pakistan 14 C 5.6% 6.4% 6.1% 1.7%
Tanzania 15 C 5.6% 4.5% 3.8% 0.2%
India 16 C 5.5% 3.6% 2.7% 14.6%
Congo, Dem. Rep 17 D 5.5% 4.8% 4.5% 0.2%
Kenya 18 C 5.4% 5.3% 4.0% 0.4%
Cambodia 19 D 5.4% 3.7% 1.3% 0.1%
Benin 20 C 5.4% 5.9% 5.4% 0.1%
Laos 21 D 5.3% 3.3% 1.6% 0.1%

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  • Over the past 10 years the global economy has grown by 35%. Pakistan's contribution to this growth was 1.7% once any allowances are made for base year and informal economy size.

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WEALTH

  • GDP per Capita has grown much slower than comparable countries in the Asia-Pacific region and in the Frontier Markets generally.
Pakistan's GDP Per Capita Growth: 10 Years
Index: 1996 = 100

  • Pakistan's GDP per Capita remains very low against the Asia-Pacific and Frontier Market averages.

GDP Per Capita: Asia-Pacific Region
Ranked by GDP per Capita


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INEQUALITY

  • The distribution of income in an economy and can be measured on a country by country basis by the Gini Coefficient. Gini values are not all up-to-date but in the case of Pakistan the data relates to 2018.
  • World Economics has Indexed the Gini Coefficient in relation to each country for comparison purposes. The Index is on a scale of 0-100. A high value indicates a more egalitarian society - and a low value suggests a lot of the national income is in the hands of a relatively small section of the population.
  • Pakistan ranks 33rd globally, 8th for the Asia Pacific region and 6th in the Frontier Markets for Inequality.
Inequality Rankings: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0-100, 0 = High Inequality; 100 = High Equality
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Regional
Rank
Inequality
Index
Poverty
% of Population




Kazakhstan 3 55.9 0.0%
Kyrgyzstan 4 52.9 1.1%
Myanmar 5 51.3 1.4%
Cambodia 6 51.1 0.0%
Korea, Rep. 7 50.2 0.0%
Pakistan 8 49.8 3.6%
Bangladesh 9 48.6 14.3%
New Zealand 10 48.4 0.0%
Mongolia 11 48.1 0.5%
Nepal 12 47.9 15.0%
Japan 13 47.8 0.0%
Taiwan 14 46.0 0.0%
Tajikistan 15 46.0 4.1%

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DEBT

  • World Economics produces GDP data in Purchasing Power Parity terms with added estimates for the size of the informal economy and adjustments for out-of-date GDP base year data.
  • Pakistan's is officially reported as having a debt-to-GDP ratio is calculated to be 77.8% by the IMF.
  • Using the World Economics GDP database, Pakistan's GDP is calculated to be 45% larger than official estimates. Its debt ratio is consequently calculated at 53.8%
Debt-to-GDP Ratio for Emerging Market Countries
Ranked by % of GDP
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Global
Rank
Debt-to-GDP
Ratio




Finland 37 58.2%
Ghana 38 57.7%
Slovenia 39 56.2%
Croatia 40 56.1%
El Salvador 41 54.8%
Argentina 42 54.3%
Guinea-Bissau 43 53.9%
Pakistan 44 53.8%
Costa Rica 45 53.4%
Algeria 46 53.4%
Albania 47 53.3%
Slovak Republic 48 52.7%
India 49 52.3%
Australia 50 51.6%
Morocco 51 51.5%
Asia-Pacific Average   54.3%
Frontier Markets Average   46.7%


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POPULATION

  • Pakistan is the fifth most populous country in the world with approximately 230 million inhabitants.
  • Pakistan last conducted a national census in 2017. Read more from the World Economics Population Data Quality Ratings and see how Pakistan compares to other countries around the world and in the Asia-Pacific region.
Pakistan's Population Breakdown
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Population
Size
(Millions)
Median
Age
(Years)
Age
Dependency
(Young)
Age
Dependency
(Old)
Age
Dependency
(Total)





China 1,448.5 37.9 25.5% 19.0% 44.5%
India 1,406.6 27.6 38.1% 10.1% 48.1%
United States 334.8 37.7 28.0% 25.6% 53.7%
Indonesia 279.1 29.4 37.6% 10.0% 47.6%
Pakistan 229.5 20.2 62.8% 7.2% 70.0%
Nigeria 216.7 17.0 80.6% 5.5% 86.1%
Brazil 215.4 32.8 29.4% 13.7% 43.1%
Bangladesh 167.9 26.3 39.1% 8.6% 47.7%
Russia 145.8 38.8 26.6% 23.4% 50.0%
Mexico 131.6 29.0 37.3% 12.2% 49.4%
Japan 125.6 48.4 20.1% 51.0% 71.1%
Ethiopia 120.8 18.5 70.2% 5.5% 75.7%

Access the interactive all country Population table

  • Pakistan has a young population profile of 62.8% and an old population profile of 7.2%. The average age is under 23 years old.
  • 58% of births are not registered in Pakistan.

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ENVIRONMENT

  • Pakistan's total emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane are considerable placing it in 9th place of polluters by volume but on per capita level, Pakistan moves down towards the lower portion of the list.
  • The World Economics Emissions Index (on a scale of 0-100, 0=bad, 100=good) gauges the relative emissions for a country. The Emissions Index is based on the equal weighting of total Carbon and Methane emissions.
Environmental Factors
Index: 0 = High Emissions, 100 = Low Emissions
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Emissions
Index
0-100
Carbon
Emissions
Total
Carbon
Emissions
Per Capita
Methane
Emissions
Total
Methane
Emissions
Per Capita
Air
Quality
PM2.5
Water
Access
per capita





United States 47.0 5,007.3 15.0 755.7 2.3 7.2 70.8%
India 60.6 2,709.7 1.9 668.8 0.5 50.2 98.9%
Russia 63.7 1,755.5 12.0 694.5 4.8 8.9 81.7%
Brazil 79.6 488.9 2.3 443.0 2.1 10.9 49.6%
Indonesia 81.2 619.3 2.2 389.7 1.4 19.3 95.4%
Pakistan 92.0 229.5 1.0 168.9 0.8 50.1 61.6%
Mexico 92.3 407.2 3.1 143.3 1.1 17.8 100.0%
Saudi Arabia 92.4 672.4 19.0 113.8 3.2 57.2 55.9%
Australia 92.6 391.2 15.2 138.0 5.4 8.9 99.9%
Canada 93.3 545.6 14.3 103.9 2.7 6.4 100.0%
Nigeria 93.5 137.0 0.7 143.8 0.7 55.6 75.1%
Argentina 93.8 186.5 4.1 130.9 2.9 12.0 85.3%
Japan 94.2 1,067.4 8.5 27.7 0.2 10.8 100.0%

See: Access the interactive all country Environmental data table

Key:
Emissions Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Bad, 100 = Good.

Notes:
Format: Carbon data in Million MtCO2e and Methane data in MtCO2e, Air Quality: PM2.5

Methodology: Total Carbon and Total Methane data for each country has been indexed on a scale of 0-100 by using the standard deviation from the mean for each country. The implied Indexes are averaged to calculate a total Emissions Index which focuses on each countries emissions.

  • Average annual temperatures in Pakistan have risen by 1.3 degrees in the past 30 years.
Averge Annual Temerature by Year: Pakistan

Source: CCKP. World Bank Group, Climate Change Knowledge Portal


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SOCIAL

  • The World Economics Social Index averages multiple key social indicators covering Health, Education and Employment.
  • Pakistan has a worse than average rank for its social metrics, 109th out of 155 countries and 24th of 31 in the Asia-Pacific region.
Social Factors: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0 = Poor metrics, 100 = Excellent metrics
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Social
Factors
Index
Life
Expectancy
Years
Median
Age
Years
Mean Years
Schooling
Years
Spend on
Education
% of GDP
Population
in Work
Population %
Population
in Poverty
%





Papua New Guinea 64.7 76.2 21.8 10.5 1.4% 45.9% 38.0%
Bangladesh 62.0 72.4 26.3 7.4 2.1% 54.0% 14.3%
Bhutan 60.7 71.8 28.2 5.2 7.0% 57.5% 1.5%
Cambodia 58.9 69.6 26.5 5.1 3.1% 79.2% 0.0%
Myanmar 57.9 65.7 29.0 6.4 2.1% 53.6% 1.4%
Brunei Darussalam 56.9 74.6 31.8 9.2 4.4% 58.7% 43.7%
Laos 53.9 68.1 23.8 5.4 2.3% 75.5% 10.0%
Pakistan 52.3 66.1 20.2 4.5 2.4% 47.9% 3.6%
Nepal 51.5 68.4 23.7 5.1 4.2% 75.6% 15.0%
India 51.3 67.2 27.6 6.7 4.5% 42.8% 22.5%
Singapore 47.8 60.1 41.8 4.6 2.8% 66.1% 0.0%
Afghanistan 45.3 62.0 16.7 3.0 2.9% 35.9% 0.0%

Access the interactive all country Social data table

Key:
Social Factors Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100
         0 = Poor social metrics, 100 = Excellent social metrics.

  • 3.9% of Pakistan's population is living in poverty. Poverty is defined as living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices
  • Pakistan spends 2.9% of GDP on education, each pupil receives 5.2 years of schooling (on average) - over three years less than the global average.

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GOVERNANCE

  • Pakistan ranks 118th globally, 18th in the Asia-Pacific region and low in the Frontier Markets for Governance.
Governance Factors Index: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0 = Poor, 100 = Good
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Governance
Index
(0-100 Index)
Rule of Law
Index
(0-100 Index)
Press Freedom
(0-100 Index)
Political Rights
(0-100 Index)
Corruption
Perceptions
(0-100 Index)




Indonesia 52.3 41.9 53.2 76.2 37.8
Nepal 51.4 35.8 67.6 64.3 37.8
Papua New Guinea 48.4 28.8 71.9 59.5 33.3
Sri Lanka 48.4 48.6 45.5 59.5 40.0
Philippines 44.4 31.3 45.2 64.3 36.7
Thailand 40.3 50.6 54.1 16.7 40.0
Kazakhstan 36.0 35.2 52.1 16.7 40.0
Pakistan 35.7 31.4 41.0 40.5 30.0
Bangladesh 35.0 32.1 39.5 40.5 27.8
Kyrgyzstan 33.5 20.3 69.3 14.3 30.0
Vietnam 32.7 43.9 28.2 11.9 46.7
China 31.4 48.5 27.2 0.0 50.0
Uzbekistan 29.6 25.1 49.4 9.5 34.4
Cambodia 28.7 24.7 46.9 16.7 26.7
Laos 28.7 31.3 39.5 9.5 34.4

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Key:
The World Economics Governance Index gives equal weight to all four criteria.

Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.

Governance: 0 = Poor governance, 100 = As good as it gets.
Corruption Perceptions: 0 = Bad, 100 = Good.
Rule of Law: 0 = low rule of law, 100 = High rule of law.
Press Freedom: 0 = Low press freedom, 100 = High press freedom.
Political Rights: 0 = Low political rights, 100 = High political rights.



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