Indonesia

Updated: November 2022.


Key Insights
  • The Indonesian economy is estimated by World Economics to be 39% larger than official data suggests, and is likely within the next three years to overtake Russia and Germany to become the world's fifth biggest economy.
  • Key potentially favourable indicators include a ten year record of rapid believable (as based on reasonable quality data) economic growth; a large domestic market of 276 million; growth in GDP per capita significantly faster than other Emerging Markets; unusually low debt compared with other developing countries; and a young population profile.
  • Negative indicators include rising average annual temperatures in an already equatorial climate, relatively high inequality and corruption.
 
ECONOMY SIZE

  • When measured in Purchasing Power Parity terms, including estimates for its large informal economy, and adjustments for outdated base year measures, Indonesia's GDP is the seventh largest in the world, fourth largest in the Asia-Pacific region and third largest in the Emerging Markets
Gross Domestic Product: 2021
Ranked by GDP
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country GDP by Size
See full interactive table
GDP PPP
(Billions)
GDP Data Quality
Grade
Share of
Global GDP
%





Russia $5,540 C 3.4%
Germany $4,890 A 3.0%
Indonesia $4,519 B 2.7%
Brazil $4,167 B 2.5%
Turkey $3,487 B 2.1%
France $3,449 A 2.1%
United Kingdom $3,401 A 2.1%
Mexico $3,252 B 2.0%
Italy $3,064 A 1.9%
Korea, Rep. $2,801 A 1.7%

Access the interactive all country GDP by Size table


Related Data:

Related Insights:


 
GDP Data Quality

Data Quality Ratings: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0 = Extremely poor quality, 100 = Good as it gets
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country table
See full interactive version
Data
Quality
Index
Data
Quality
Grade
Base
Year
SNA
Version
Informal
Economy %
Resoucres
Index 0-100
Corruption
Index 0-100





Japan 96.3 A Chained 2008 9.6 100.0 73
Australia 96.2 A Chained 2008 9.9 100.0 73
Hong Kong 95.7 A Chained 2008 13.6 100.0 76
Korea, Rep. 90.1 A Chained 2008 22.7 100.0 62
China 81.1 B 2015 2008 12.7 80.0 45
Mongolia 76.3 B 2010 2008 15.1 92.2 35
Philippines 75.1 B 2018 2008 34.1 82.2 33
Indonesia 73.3 B 2010 2008 22.7 85.6 38
Malaysia 73.0 B 2010 2008 25.3 76.7 48
Pakistan 70.2 B 2016 2008 35.6 72.2 28
Kazakhstan 69.8 C Chained 1993 31.9 78.9 37
Sri Lanka 69.6 C 2010 2008 31.1 80.0 37
Uzbekistan 67.6 C Chained 1993 27.2 67.8 28
Azerbaijan 67.1 C Chained 1993 36.8 80.0 30
Thailand 65.8 C Chained 1993 46.2 83.3 35

Access the interactive all country Data Quality Ratings table

Key:
Data Quality Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Poor, 100 = Excellent.

Resources Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Low level of resources, 100 = High level of resources.

Corruption Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = High corruption, 100 = Low corruption.

Grade definitions:
         A: As good as it gets;
         B: Use with caution;
         C: Unreliable for many purposes
         D: Extremely poor quality.


Related Data:

Relevant Papers:


 
ECONOMIC GROWTH

  • Indonesia's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10, 5 and 3 years was 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% respectively.
  • On a 10-year CAGR basis Indonesia ranks as the 13th fastest growing economy in the Asia-Pacific region and 5th of 24 countries in the Emerging Markets over the past decade.
  • Taking into account data quality, Indonesia jumps up the rankings to third place in Asia over the past 5 years, and fourth place over the last decade.
Indonesia's Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) over the last 10-years
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country CAGR
See full interactive table
Global
Rank:
GDP Data
Quality:
Grade
CAGR
10 Year:
2011-2021
CAGR
5 Year:
2016-2021
CAGR
3 Year:
2018-2021
Global Growth
Share:
Percentage




Turkey 29 B 5.1% 4.7% 4.5% 3.2%
Malta 30 A 5.1% 4.1% 2.4% 0.0%
Mongolia 31 B 5.0% 3.1% 1.1% 0.0%
Dominican Republic 32 B 4.9% 4.3% 3.2% 0.2%
Philippines 33 B 4.8% 2.9% 0.4% 1.1%
Uganda 34 C 4.7% 4.9% 4.9% 0.1%
Cameroon 35 D 4.4% 3.6% 3.5% 0.1%
Indonesia 36 B 4.3% 3.3% 2.2% 3.6%
Mozambique 37 C 4.2% 2.1% 1.1% 0.0%
Pakistan 38 B 4.0% 3.4% 1.9% 1.1%
Papua New Guinea 39 D 3.9% 1.2% 0.9% 0.0%
Oman 40 B 3.9% 2.6% 3.6% 0.2%
Panama 41 C 3.9% 1.3% -0.9% 0.1%
Malaysia 42 B 3.8% 2.4% 0.6% 0.9%
Egypt 43 C 3.8% 4.4% 4.1% 1.3%

Access the interactive all country CAGR table

  • Over the past 10 years the global economy has grown by 27%. Indonesia's contribution to this growth was 3.6% once any allowances are made for base year and informal economy size.

Related Data:

Related Insights:


 
WEALTH

  • GDP per Capita has grown much faster than comparable countries in the Asia-Pacific region and in the Emerging Markets generally.
  • In GDP per Capita terms, Indonesia ranks 10th for the Asia-Pacific region and 22nd for the Emerging Markets.
Indonesia's GDP Per Capita Growth: 10 Years
Index: 1996 = 100

GDP Per Capita: Asia-Pacific Region
Ranked by GDP per Capita
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country GDP per capita
See full interactive table
GDP Per Capita
PPP
(Int$)
GDP per Capita
Data Quality
Grade





Japan $44,744 A
Malaysia $38,237 B
Kazakhstan $34,352 B
Thailand $25,617 C
China $20,973 B
Azerbaijan $19,586 C
Sri Lanka $19,539 C
Indonesia $16,353 B
Mongolia $15,404 B
Philippines $11,487 B
Vietnam $11,426 C
India $11,137 C
Laos $11,062 C
Uzbekistan $10,106 C
Kyrgyzstan $7,151 C
Asia-Pacific Average $29,180 -
Emerging Markets Average $38,310 -

Access the interactive all country GDP per Capita table


Related Data:

Related Insights:


 
INEQUALITY

  • The distribution of income in an economy and can be measured on a country by country basis by the Gini Coefficient. Gini values are not all up-to-date but in the case of Indonesia the data relates to 2019, so is relatively recent.
  • World Economics has Indexed the Gini Coefficient in relation to each country for comparison purposes. The Index is on a scale of 0-100. A high value indicates a more egalitarian society - and a low value suggests a lot of the national income is in the hands of a relatively small section of the population.
  • Indonesia ranks 85th globally, 23rd for the Asia Pacific region and 11th in the Emerging Markets for Inequality.
Inequality Rankings: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0-100, 0 = High Inequality; 100 = High Equality
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country Inequality
See full interactive table
Regional
Rank
Inequality
Index
Poverty
% of Population




Australia 16 45.4 -
Singapore 17 45.2 -
Thailand 18 44.6 0.0%
Uzbekistan 19 44.0 -
India 20 43.3 21.2%
Vietnam 21 43.3 1.9%
Bhutan 22 40.6 1.5%
Indonesia 23 39.4 4.6%
China 24 38.9 0.5%
Laos 25 38.4 22.7%
Sri Lanka 26 37.6 0.8%
Turkmenistan 27 35.2 -
Malaysia 28 34.8 -
Papua New Guinea 29 33.5 38.0%
Philippines 30 32.9 6.1%

Access the interactive all country Inequality table

Related Data:


 
DEBT

  • World Economics produces GDP data in Purchasing Power Parity terms with added estimates for the size of the informal economy and adjustments for out-of-date GDP base year data.
  • Indonesia's is officially reported as having a debt-to-GDP ratio is calculated to be 41.2% by the IMF.
  • Using the World Economics GDP database, Indonesia's GDP is calculated to be 39% larger than official estimates. Its debt ratio is consequently calculated at 29.6%
Debt-to-GDP Ratio for Emerging Market Countries
Ranked by % of GDP
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country debt
See full interactive table
Global
Rank
Debt-to-GDP
Ratio




Honduras 112 31.3%
Madagascar 113 31.3%
Guyana 114 30.7%
Chile 115 30.4%
Mauritania 116 30.0%
Belarus 117 29.9%
Niger 118 29.7%
Indonesia 119 29.6%
Vietnam 120 29.0%
United Arab Emirates 121 28.8%
Burkina Faso 122 28.2%
Uzbekistan 123 28.1%
Mali 124 27.9%
Nepal 125 27.8%
Liberia 126 27.6%
Asia-Pacific Average   52.5%
Emerging Markets Average   45.4%


Related Data:


 
POPULATION

  • Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world with approximately 276 million inhabitants.
  • Indonesia last conducted a national census in 2020. Read more from the World Economics Population Data Quality Ratings and see how Indonesia compares to other countries around the world and in the Asia-Pacific region.
Indonesia's Population Breakdown
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country Population
See full interactive table
Population
Size
(Millions)
Median
Age
(Years)
Age
Dependency
(Young)
Age
Dependency
(Old)
Age
Dependency
(Total)





China 1,444.2 38.4 25.2% 17.0% 42.2%
India 1,393.4 28.4 38.9% 9.8% 48.7%
United States 332.9 38.3 28.3% 25.6% 53.9%
Indonesia 276.4 29.7 38.3% 9.2% 47.5%
Pakistan 225.2 22.8 57.2% 7.1% 64.4%
Brazil 214.0 33.5 29.7% 13.8% 43.5%
Nigeria 211.4 18.1 80.9% 5.1% 86.0%
Bangladesh 166.3 27.6 39.3% 7.7% 47.0%
Russia 145.9 39.6 27.8% 23.5% 51.2%
Mexico 130.3 29.2 38.8% 11.4% 50.3%
Japan 126.1 48.4 21.0% 48.0% 69.0%

Access the interactive all country Population table

  • Indonesia has a young population profile of 38.3% and a low old population profile of 9.2%. The average age is under 30 years old.

Related Data:


 
ENVIRONMENT

  • Indonesia's total emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane are considerable placing it in the top 10 of polluters by volume but on per capita level, Indonesia moves down the list to around the global median.
  • The World Economics Emissions Index (on a scale of 0-100, 0=bad, 100=good) gauges the relative emissions for a country. The Emissions Index is based on the equal weighting of total Carbon and Methane emissions.
Environmental Factors
Index: 0 = High Emissions, 100 = Low Emissions
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country table
See full interactive version
Emissions
Index
0-100
Carbon
Emissions
Total
Carbon
Emissions
Per Capita
Methane
Emissions
Total
Methane
Emissions
Per Capita
Air
Quality
PM2.5
Water
Access
per capita





Brazil 80.8 465.7 2.2 418.0 2.0 11.6 99.0%
Indonesia 83.4 617.5 2.2 335.1 1.2 19.1 92.4%
Mexico 92.0 438.5 3.4 145.1 1.1 22.7 99.0%
Australia 92.3 411.0 15.9 139.9 5.4 7.1 99.0%
Pakistan 92.7 248.8 1.1 151.0 0.7 58.8 90.1%
Canada 93.3 576.7 15.2 95.5 2.5 6.4 99.0%
Japan 93.7 1,106.7 8.8 21.1 0.2 13.4 99.0%
Nigeria 94.2 140.0 0.7 127.9 0.6 61.7 77.6%
Germany 94.4 702.0 8.4 53.4 0.6 11.5 99.0%

See: Access the interactive all country Environmental data table

Key:
Emissions Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.
         0 = Bad, 100 = Good.

Notes:
Format: Carbon data in Million MtCO2e and Methane data in MtCO2e, Air Quality: PM2.5

Methodology: Total Carbon and Total Methane data for each country has been indexed on a scale of 0-100 by using the standard deviation from the mean for each country. The implied Indexes are averaged to calculate a total Emissions Index which focuses on each countries emissions.

  • Indonesia was the 34th hottest country in the World in 2021 using average annual temperature data
  • Temperatures in Indonesia have been steadily rising since 1980.
Averge Annual Temerature by Year: Indonesia

Source: CCKP. World Bank Group, Climate Change Knowledge Portal


Related Data:


 
SOCIAL

  • The World Economics Social Index averages multiple key social indicators covering Health, Education and Employment.
  • Indonesia has a worse than average rank for its social metrics, 95th out of 155 countries and 20th of 31 in the Asia-Pacific region.
Social Factors: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0 = Poor metrics, 100 = Excellent metrics
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country table
See full interactive version
Social
Factors
Index
Life
Expectancy
Years
Median
Age
Years
Mean Years
Schooling
Years
Spend on
Education
% of GDP
Population
in Work
Population %
Population
in Poverty
%





Mongolia 84.7 69.9 28.2 10.3 4.1% 56.1% 0.5%
Tajikistan 84.5 71.1 22.4 10.7 5.2% 37.4% 4.8%
Thailand 82.3 77.2 40.1 7.9 4.1% 66.8% 0.0%
Vietnam 81.7 75.4 32.5 8.3 4.2% 75.9% 1.9%
Indonesia 78.8 71.7 29.7 8.2 3.6% 64.3% 4.6%
Myanmar 70.7 67.1 29.0 5.0 2.0% 60.7% 2.0%
Bhutan 70.5 71.8 28.1 4.1 6.6% 65.2% 1.5%
Pakistan 70.2 67.3 22.8 5.2 2.9% 50.2% 3.9%
Bangladesh 70.1 72.6 27.6 6.2 2.0% 56.5% 14.8%
India 66.9 69.7 28.4 6.5 3.8% 46.7% 21.2%

Access the interactive all country Social data table

Key:
Social Factors Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100
         0 = Poor social metrics, 100 = Excellent social metrics.

  • 4.6% of Indonesia's population is living in poverty. Poverty is defined as living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices
  • Indonesia spends 3.6% of GDP on education, each pupil receives 8.2 years of schooling (on average) - only half a year less than the global average.

Related Data:


 
GOVERNANCE

  • Indonesia ranks 67th globally, 11th in the Asia-Pacific region and 11th in the Emerging Markets for Governance.
Governance Factors Index: Asia-Pacific Region
Index: 0 = Poor, 100 = Good
Filter:
All
Country
Extract of country Governance
See full interactive table
Governance
Index
(0-100 Index)
Rule of Law
Index
(0-100 Index)
Press Freedom
(0-100 Index)
Political Rights
(0-100 Index)
Corruption
Perceptions
(0-100 Index)




Singapore 72.2 95.1 47.7 50.0 95.9
Hong Kong 67.3 87.9 44.9 40.5 95.9
Papua New Guinea 64.6 30.9 71.9 59.5 95.9
Malaysia 56.2 64.9 55.6 54.8 49.3
Mongolia 56.0 42.1 63.9 90.5 27.4
India 53.1 48.2 44.3 85.7 34.2
Kyrgyzstan 51.3 25.8 69.3 14.3 95.9
Indonesia 49.9 40.3 53.2 76.2 30.1
Nepal 48.3 36.5 67.6 64.3 24.7
Sri Lanka 46.0 47.5 45.5 59.5 31.5
Azerbaijan 44.9 31.6 42.5 9.5 95.9
Myanmar 44.5 19.5 27.0 35.7 95.9
Uzbekistan 44.3 22.4 49.4 9.5 95.9
Afghanistan 44.2 4 41.3 35.7 95.9
Philippines 42.6 35 45.2 64.3 26.0

Access the interactive all country Governance table

Key:
The World Economics Governance Index gives equal weight to all four criteria.

Index numbers shown on a scale of 0-100.

Governance: 0 = Poor governance, 100 = As good as it gets.
Corruption Perceptions: 0 = Bad, 100 = Good.
Rule of Law: 0 = low rule of law, 100 = High rule of law.
Press Freedom: 0 = Low press freedom, 100 = High press freedom.
Political Rights: 0 = Low political rights, 100 = High political rights.



Related Data: